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Nonviolence USA Special Feature

Riot Control

An Archaeology of Managers, Manufacturers, Materiel, and Techniques

Because we need to think carefully about technologies of power in a New World Order

Sunshine Project
Austin, TX

Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD

US Army Patents Biological Weapons Delivery System: Violates Bioweapons Convention
Press Release
(May 8, 2003)
Sunshine Project

The United States Army has developed and patented a new grenade that it says can be used to wage biowarfare. This is in violation of the Biological Weapons Convention, which explicitly prohibits development of bioweapons delivery devices.

US Patent #6,523,478, granted on February 25th 2003, covers a "rifle launched non lethal cargo dispenser" that is designed to deliver aerosols, including – according to the patent’s claims - “crowd control agents, biological agents, [and] chemical agents...”

US troops accused of carnage
(Apr. 16, 2003)
Sydney Morning Herald

United States troops opened fire on a crowd hostile to the new pro-American governor in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul yesterday, killing at least 10 people and injuring as many as 100, witnesses and doctors said.

Scandal-Hit US Firm Wins Key Contracts
Antony Barnett
(Apr. 13, 2003)
The Observer via Truthout

DynCorp, which has donated more than £100,000 to the Republican Party, began recruiting for a private police force in Iraq last week on behalf of the US State Department....

While the US has promised help in bringing law and order to Iraq, the involvement of DynCorp has caused concern as it has been involved in a series of recent high-profile scandals involving personnel in sensitive missions overseas.

Policekeeping Is The Key
Tim Symonds
(Apr. 12, 2003)

Dear Greg, there are two new analyses on policing, one particularly on Iraq, the other on policekeeping in failed states. I am trying to discover how to access them electronically. I think both could be very useful in assessing how to help Iraq achieve stability.

IRAQ: Annan, ICRC Urge U.S. To Ensure Law And Order
Pop-Up Details
(Apr. 11, 2003)
UN Wire

"Our great worry is the situation of chaotic insecurity in Baghdad. We don't know how much of the infrastructure and medical services are still functioning," ICRC spokeswoman Nada Doumani told Reuters. "We hope that the perimeters of these facilities can be secured by the Americans. Under the Geneva Conventions, it is up to the occupying forces to impose law and order."

Police Attack California Anti-War Protesters
Martha Mendoza
(Apr. 7, 2003)
AP via Common Dreams

Police open fired Monday morning with non-lethal bullets at an anti-war protest at the Port of Oakland, injuring several longshoremen standing nearby.

Bush Approves Use of Tear Gas in Battlefield Weapons Experts Fear Violation of Law
Nicholas Wade and Eric Schmitt
(Apr. 3, 2003)
NYTimes via Daily Kos
"Riot-control agents, such as C.S., better known as tear gas, are non-lethal and may be used by U.S. forces only when authorized by the president and only under specific, well-defined circumstances, to protect non-combatants," a Pentagon spokesperson, Lt. Col. Dave Lapan, said in response to questions Friday. Use of the agents for defensive purposes to save lives "would be consistent with the Chemical Weapons Convention, which prohibits the use of riot control agents as a method of warfare," he said.

Texas Weapons Inspection Team Report
Initial Findings
(Mar. 7, 2003)
Military Documentation Project
The Texas Weapons Inspection Team has evidence that Computer Science Corporation's Dyncorp Technical Services division has been helping to stockpile weapons in the Persian Gulf region that will be used in a pre-emptive and unilateral attack against Iraq. The Team expects full cooperation from CSC to come forth with details about the exact nature of these weapons.

U.S. tear gas use in Iraq may violate weapons treaties
Paul Elias
(Mar. 2, 2003)
AP Wire via Mercury News
Problem is, soldiers who use so-called "nonlethal agents" in combat outside their own countries are violating the very chemical weapons treaties the United States accuses Saddam Hussein of flouting.

"We are doing our best to live within the straitjacket that has been imposed on us on this subject," Rumsfeld said on Feb. 5. "We are trying to find ways that nonlethal agents could be used within the law."

US Plans to Use Illegal Weapons [in Iraq]
Severin Carrell
(Feb. 16, 2003)
Independent via Common Dreams
The US Secretary of Defence, Donald Rumsfeld, revealed earlier this month that American forces are planning to use "non-lethal" biochemical weapons such as anti-riot gases and crowd control agents if they invade Iraq. Mr Rumsfeld and General Richard Myers, chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, told the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee they were preparing to ask President George Bush for permission to use these weapons, known in military circles as "calmatives", on Iraqi civilians, in cave systems or to take prisoners.

Sunshine Project Annual Report 2002 [PDF]
(Jan., 2003)
Sunshine Project
In 2001, the Sunshine Project began investigating “nonlethal” biochemical weapons. In September of that year, we wrote that the War on Terrorism could result in their use. It has. Early in 2002, a severely misguided British official approached the Sunshine Project, seeking to buy biochemical weapons. We put the official’s e-mail in an article on the front page of the Financial Times. Only weeks before the Moscow tragedy, the Project went to the Chemical Weapons Convention with a 400 page dossier on US biochemical weapons efforts. The Project urged action to stop the program. In response, the US Department of State sought to deny us access to the meeting.

Grenade, Launcher: Non-Lethal, Distraction, M98 & Grenade, Launcher: Non-Lethal, Blunt Trauma, M99
Army Website
Description: The M98 Distraction Grenade uses a pyrotechnic charge for crowd control through audio and visual stimuli.

The M99 Blunt Trauma Grenade uses a pyrotechnic charge to discharge 32 cal PVC balls and achieve crowd control through audio, visual, and physical stimuli.

The M98 and M99 use a common design. In the M98 grenade, three submunitions are projected from the grenade to the crowd. They are designed to land on the ground before initiation and be light enough to impact individuals in the crowd without causing severe injury. When the M99 submunitions initiate, they deliver 140 32 cal PVC balls each (420 PVC balls per grenade). The M98 uses the same burster as the XM99, but the PVC ball fill is replaced with paper.

Background/Status: The M98/M99 program is a joint Army/Marine development program. The U.S. Army Military Police are the lead user. Type Classification is scheduled for 1QFY02. New Materiel Release is scheduled for 2QFY03. [Jan. 2003]

Sonic bullets and spider webs: UNH scientists help develop non-lethal weapons
Daniel Barrick
(Nov. 17, 2002)
Concord Monitor
As the U.S. military prepares for a possible war in the Middle East in coming months, scientists like Zguris are already developing the technology for wars 10 or 12 years in the future. Their research is funded by the University of New Hampshire's Non-Lethal Technology Innovation Center, one of the leaders in an increasingly important field of 21st-century warfare.

Policing The Pax Americana: ‘Non-lethal’ Generals on the road to Baghdad
Stephen James Kerr
(Nov. 14, 2002)
The Pax Americana will be taken with bombs, but it will be held with police state methods and a strange new generation of weapons that violate existing arms control treaties. Discussion papers from the ‘non-lethal’ programme describe an increasingly polarized world, divided between ‘haves and have nots.’ ‘Non-lethal weapons’ will be used to win wars, in the ‘homeland’ and in the far-flung reaches of the Pax Americana. ‘Non-lethal weapons’ are the technocrats’ latest fix to a social problem they can’t solve: our human needs and wants.

And if past practice of the US government is a guide, these new weapons will be field tested on the people of Iraq.

Stephen James Kerr
(Oct., 2002)
Now Toronto
When vladimir putin's generals pumped anaesthetic gas through the vents of that Moscow theatre last week, the inadvertent killing of 117 hostages by their rescuers became the calling card of a new era in chemical warfare. Russian health minister Yuri Shevchenko confirmed yesterday that the substance used was a sedative called fentanyl, in the same family as morphine and heroine.

Study stuns senators with scale of Iraq peacekeeping mission
John Diamond
(Aug. 2, 2002)
USA Today
Mounting a peacekeeping mission in Iraq after the ouster of Saddam Hussein would involve 75,000 troops and cost $16 billion in the first year, a detailed study presented to lawmakers Thursday estimates. A defense intelligence official said that figure could be low.

US plan to strike enemy with Valium
Antony Barnett
(May. 26, 2002)
US documents reveal that two years ago the Pentagon commissioned scientists at Pennsylvania State University to look at potential military uses for a range of chemicals known as calmatives. The scientists concluded that several drugs would be effective to control crowds or in military operations such as anti-terrorist campaigns. The drugs they recommended for 'immediate consideration' included diazepam, better known as the tranquilliser Valium, and dexmedetomidine, used to sedate patients in intensive care. The scientists advised that these drugs can 'effectively act on central nervous system tissues and produces a less anxious, less aggressive, more tranquil-like behaviour'.

Rubber Bullets Don't Get Rubber Stamp
Antony Barnett
(May. 24, 2002)
AP via CBS News
Some types of rubber bullets used by police to restrain unruly protesters kill and maim too often to be considered a safe method of crowd control, new research concludes....

The study, published this week in The Lancet medical journal, examined the effects of rubber-coated bullets used by the Israeli police force during riots by Israeli Arabs in northern and central Israel in early October 2000.

Genetically Engineered Anti-Material Weapons
Backrounder Series No. 9
(Mar., 2002)
Sunshine Project
The United States is the world leader in the development of genetically engineered anti-material organisms and a federal law prohibits their military use. The enforcement of this law is weak and under threat. A number of military projects are researching anti-material technology (generally for self-described "protective purposes"), and different elements of the US armed forces and their advisors are in open disagreement about the desirability of developing anti-material biological weapons. Development – including research by the US Army, Navy, and Marine Corps – is proceeding virtually unchecked and, in some cases, in secret.

War Without Blood? Hypocrisy of 'non-lethal' Arms
Steve Wright
(Dec., 1999)
Le Monde Diplomatique
Even though most of the new less-than-lethal initiatives are highly classified, they have spawned a string of lucrative commercial contracts which are occasionally reported in the defence press. However, the clearest picture of progress to date has emerged from three recent conferences sponsored by Jane's Defence Weekly, held in London between 1997 and 1999.

Non-Lethal Weapons Demand Expands as Missions Change: Peacekeeping, law enforcement requirements dictate development of gentler technologies
Dr. John B. Alexander
(Mar., 1996)
National Defense via ZARC
A much debated issue is the appropriateness of using U.S. forces, especially ground troops, in peacekeeping operations. Despite that debate, to accomplish such missions U.S. forces need new technology including non-lethal weapons.

Part III: Chemical
Chapter 7: Riot Control Agents
(Mar. 1, 1996)
Riot control agents are irritants characterised by a very low toxicity (chronic or acute) and a short duration of action. Little or no latent period occurs after exposure. Orthochlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) is the most commonly used irritant for riot control purposes. Chloracetophenone (CN) is also used in some countries for this purpose in spite of its higher toxicity. A newer agent is dibenzoxazepine (CR) with which there is little experience. Arsenical smokes (sternutators) have in the past been used on the battlefield. Apart from their lachrymatory action they also provoke other effects, e.g., bronchoconstriction and emesis and are some times referred to as vomiting agents. For historical reasons some older, more toxic compounds are briefly mentioned.

Disperser, Riot Control Agent, Mid Sized, M37
Army Website
The M37 Mid Sized Riot Control Disperser will be used by U.S. Forces involved in Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement operations to establish law and order and counter civil disturbances. It will be used by Military Police conducting law enforcement operations. It will provide the soldier with a method to subdue hostile aggressors and control the movement of unruly crowds from a stand-off distance. It is a new medium sized, lightweight riot control agent disperser that will fill the size/performance gap between the current large, backpack-mounted M33A1 and the smaller handheld M36 dispersers. The M37 is approximately the size of a medium fire extinguisher, but the pressure cylinder is held horizontally, rather than vertically. The M37 is equipped with a shoulder strap for easy one-handed operation.

CAP-STUN OC Products
Corporate Website
Zarc International
CAP-STUN has clearly demonstrated its remarkable ability to instantly render aggressors incapable of resisting arrest or further violence for up to 45 minutes – with no harmful after-effects. CAP-STUN has proven that it stops the toughest attackers – even those who are emotionally disturbed or violent due to alcohol or drugs.

In contrast, tear-gases available to law enforcement such as CN (chloroacetophenone chemical used in brandname Mace) and CS (ortho-chlorobenzalmalononitrile), are lacrimatory agents that simply produce tearing of the eyes and irritation of the skin. It has also been proven that tear-gases cannot control individuals who are highly agitated or those under the influence of narcotics or alcohol. Unlike CN and CS, CAP-STUN is an inflammatory agent that causes mucous membranes to swell, producing an immediate closing of the eyes and uncontrollable coughing. These physiological effects precludes any further aggressive behavior, resulting in an immediate compliant subject. (See chart below for a quick comparison between CAP-STUN and Tear-Gases.)

40 mm Low Velocity Rounds
Corporate Website
Swartklip Products
Modern conflict situations demand such versatility from the infantryman that he should be able to operate in situations varying from conventional warfare to riots in built-up areas. This calls for versatility in firepower, which is exactly what our 40 mm range provides.

The 40 mm Batonand 40 mm CS rounds are designed to neutralise rioters without causing fatalities. The Baton round is effective between 30 m and 70 m and the CS round from 70 m to 140 m.

Taser Products
Corporate Website
Taser International
Advanced Taser M Series: The ADVANCED TASER® was designed to takedown the toughest individuals in the world—a task no other less-lethal weapon could accomplish. The first test subject for the ADVANCED TASER® was Gunnery Sergeant Hans Marrero, USMC (Ret.). The Former Chief Instructor of Hand to Hand Combat for the Marine Corps., GySgt. Marrero has an extremely high pain tolerance and mental focus which has allowed him to survive combat injuries which would have stopped just about anyone else.

The Air Taser: On patrol, you need simple systems you can rely on to protect yourself. Most confrontations do not justify the use of lethal force, but you should not have to expose yourself to risk of injury from physical confrontation with a violent combatant. Now, there’s a powerful, reliable, compact solution: The AIR TASER®. In police studies, TASER® technology has shown to have a higher instant incapacitation rate than a .38 Special handgun.1 TASER technology is considered the method of choice for dealing with PCP suspects, violent mental patients, and dangerous cell extractions. Now, you can carry this technology on your belt in a package the size of a cell phone, including laser sight. AIR TASER is there when you need it most.

Non-Lethality and English Policing
Corporate Website
Civil Defence Supply

All these legal considerations make British riot control the most effective, safest and without doubt the most politically acceptable in the world today. Civilian casualties and deaths must be avoided. Any country can adopt or modify our methods allowing these new equipments and tactics to be introduced or partially adopted by another user. By adding existing methods such as use of CS, baton guns, armed response and armoured vehicles, safe and effective law enforcement operations are now possible.

There is no doubt that the World today is extremely sensitive to regimes that put their populations at risk by unwise and incorrect methods of dealing with protest.

The traditional British policeman never has, and perhaps never will be armed on duty. Since earliest times the English policeman has had the consent of the population to uphold the law and order without lethal or oppressive means. Human rights are maintained at all times. These methods remain today making British riot control and Internal Security response some of the safest and most effective anywhere in the World.

Note from SecurityArms.Com: CDS is an English company, which invented the 224-BOZ ammunition. A high-penetration round comprised of a 10mm auto-case which is necked down in order to accept a 5.56 NATO bullet. (Or as GunLinks.Org sez of the 224-BOZ: 'the world's newest and by far, the fastests dedicated ammunition and range of weapon modifications for law enforcement and special operations.')

Bone Pile of Research Links

If you find something here,
please reply to gmoses@lycos.com
and I'll post the results.

Jane's Fasttrack Listing of Companies in the category of 'Anti-riot and crowd control weapons and equipment' [1998/1999]

   Defense Technical Information Center

   NBC-Defense . Com

   Police Ops . Com

   SBCCOM . Army

   Security Arms . Com

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